Richard the Lion Heart

King Richard I of England was a ruler much more preoccupied with the Middle East war than with his country’s well-being. He was one of the most prominent heroes of [...]

England’s Role in Crusades

Crusades were inherent in the medieval history. France, the Low Countries and Norman Italy were crucial players in crusading, and England showed much less involvement. Nonetheless, England also participated in [...]

Edessa: Conquered Colony or Amicable Alliance?

The County of Edessa became a victorious symbol of the First Crusade. Baldwin of Boulogne, the leading crusader, and his squadron of sixty knights entered the Middle East territory predominantly [...]

William the Conqueror’s Sunset of Life

William, crowned King of England, also remained the sovereign of Normandy. After the conquest of England in 1066, he had enormous problems with taking the new land under his control. [...]

Harrying of the North to Subdue Northumbria

The Norman Conquest of England was not a single event. It involved a chain of resurrections outbreaking here and there, cruel suppression of them and newly conceived plots to revolt [...]

Dramatic Aftermath of William’s Conquest

After the Norman Conquest in 1066, William had to experience the reverse side of such decisive victory. The population of conquered England was approximately 2 million people. Norman invaders trying [...]

Pretexts for Battle at Hastings in 1066

The Norman invasion of England followed an intricate chain of historic facts. When Edward the Confessor was dying, he bestowed the throne to Harold, his brother-in-law. Before that, he had [...]

William the Eventual Conqueror of England

Duke William of Normandy orchestrated numerous alliances many of which became milestones in history. With his childless cousin, Edward the Confessor, the King of England, William concluded a deal on [...]

William the Duke of Normandy

One of the most flamboyant warriors of the Middle Ages who conquered England in 1066 and reversed its history was William I of Normandy. William was the most powerful noble [...]

Norman Era Outset. Part II

Rollo, the leader of Vikings, mastered diplomacy as key to power. He showed loyalty to King Charles the Great. Moreover, he undertook to protect the empire against other Vikings. Rollo [...]

Knights, Cavalry and New Norman Conquests Looming

The 10th century displayed complete transfiguration of wild Vikings into a strong nation integrated into the French society. Looting and extortion subsided to give way to economic development. Instead of [...]

Norman Era Outset. Part I

The Norman era embraced entire Europe – from Southern Italy to Northern France, while reaching the Near East and Jerusalem. The year 1066 became the Norman milestone in England’s history. [...]

The Second Anglo-Dutch Maritime Duel

In the 17 th century, the English and Dutch were allies against Spain, then foes to each other in their first war. Then again, after the Westminster Peace Treaty, the [...]

The Raid on the Medway in 1667.

June in 1667 brought a catastrophe to the Royal Fleet of England. The so-called "Gillingham Line", as well as the Upnor Castle Fortress, served for defense of the Royal Navy. [...]

The English Monarchy Restoration

General Overview The English Monarchy Restoration was commenced in 1660. It signified the Stuart period started after the Protectorate or Interregnum which collapsed shortly after the death of Oliver Cromwell. [...]

Anglo-Spanish War

In the 17th century, England and Spain were mighty naval states. Their commerce was vibrant across the seas and oceans of the globe. Their business competition gave rise to a [...]

Dutch Golden Age and Another English War

During the first Anglo-Dutch war, it was obvious that the Dutch fleet was incapable of fighting with England. The commercial elite in Holland hated war and wanted to stop it [...]

The End of the First Anglo-Dutch War

In 1653, the war between the English and Dutch navies reached its culmination. The Gabbard and Scheveningen Battles shaped the outcome in favor of Britain. 1653 and 1654 became the [...]