The English Monarchy Restoration was commenced in 1660. It signified the Stuart period started after the Protectorate or Interregnum which collapsed shortly after the death of Oliver Cromwell. King Charles II returned from his Dutch exile and took over the throne of England. Under his rule, the Scottish and Irish kingdoms were also renewed.
Failure of Protectorate
The English army did not support the son of Oliver Cromwell, Richard, who inherited the title of Lord Protector from his father. In May 1659 he had to give up the power. The Rump Parliament assumed the authorities.
Royalist Upheaval and Declaration of Breda
An uprising of royalists was masterminded to take place in August 1659, but it was averted. In April 1660, Charles II reclaimed the English throne in his Breda Declaration. In its text, he set forth essential promises in return for the crown. The assembled Convention Parliament declared King Charles II the monarch.
On May 29, 1660, it was the 30 th anniversary of Charles, and it was the day when he reentered London. Tremendous crowds were greeting him. The English locals perceived the recovered monarchy as a divine yet natural event. Along with the monarch’s return, many outstanding royalists, including the warrior Prince Rupert, came back with triumph and honors.
Charles II proclaimed the Church of England the official Church of the state. The Act of Uniformity adopted in 1662 specified the Book of Common Prayer mandatory to adhere to in rites and ceremonies. The puritan concept was overwhelmingly defeated.
The Glorious Revolution
King James II inherited the throne after the death of his elder brother, Charles II in 1685. His short 3-year reign continued the Restoration. In 1688, the Glorious Revolution broke out and ended the Restoration era by overthrowing James II. He then attempted to escape to France, but was captured by the Dutch and then stayed under their guard. Eventually, James got the shelter in France under the rule of Louis XIV.
Originally, the Dutch leader William III of Orange fueled the Glorious Revolution under his union with the English Parliament. During the Revolution, the Dutch invaded England, and William III become the English monarch. His wife, Mary II became the Queen of England.