In the middle of the XVII century, England was getting more and more incontrollable. In November, 1641, a group of puritan MPs compiled a long list of claims against the king. That list which was later named the Remonstration comprised 206 indictments. Instead of being set forth to the king, the Remonstration was forwarded to the people through the existing mass media.
Due to propaganda, thriving peace was suppressed by violence and mass disorders. However, it was the time when the first newspaper in history was published under a puritan arrangement.
At first, people sympathized the king rather than the radical puritans. But the press reversed the national support. The king once attempted to arrest his parliamentarian adversaries, but the crowd was a barrier against him entering the Parliament.
Charles I was obsessed with fear of cruelty awaiting him and his family. So he escaped from London, which gave rise to the civil war. The king fled the capital and headed to the North where he gathered an army of his supporters. The rural North and West of England really supported the king. In contrast, London, the South and East of the country, as well as its ports, became pro-puritan.
Most of people did not want any bloodshed. But Charles I declared war against Parliament. In Nottingham, he called up the city dwellers to fight under his flag on August 22, 1642. Meanwhile, all male radicalists were called up to go to the North to fight the king’s army. Along their way, radicalist soldiers broke into catholics’ houses and terrorized the dwellers by robbing them.
But very soon, the wild radicalist militants had to see that the war was not only robbery. They faced experienced royal warriors with swords hardened in battles. Prince Rupert who headed the royal army had fought in religious wars of Germany. Being only 23 years old, he was recognized as a military genius.
Rupert looked like a barbarian mercenary who had brought the cruelty and defiance from continental Europe to England.
To be continued…